26 may — Mashhur ingliz dramaturgi Kristofer Marlo tavallud topgan kun./ Tamburlaine the Great by Christopher Marlowe

Кристофер Марлонинг 2 қисмли «Буюк Темур» трагедияси. Аудиокитоб. Инглиз тилида | Tamburlaine the Great by Christopher Marlowe | AudioBook 

Марло (Marlowe) Кристофер (1564.6.11, Кентербери — 1593.30.5, Дептфорд) — инглиз шоири ва драматурги. Диний хизматдан воз кечиб, 1587 й.дан Лондонда актёрлар труппасида ишлаган, драматургия б-н шуғулланган. 2 қисмли «Буюк Темур» (1587—88) трагедиясида Амир Темур афсонавий, романтик бўёқларда тасвирланган. Немис халқ афсонаси асосида яратган «Доктор Фаустнинг фожиали тарихи» (1592) пьесасида қудратли инсоннинг олам сирларини билишга интилиши, «Мальталик яҳудий» (1588), «Париждаги қонхўрлик» (1593) трагедияларида мол-дунё ва ҳокимиятга эришиш йўлида инсонийлик қиёфасини йўқотган шахслар фожиаси тасвирланган. Шекспирнинг дастлабки («Генрих VI», «Тит Андроник») пьесалари Марло б-н ҳамкорликда ёзилган, деб тахмин қилинади. Трагедия жанрини янги босқичга кўтарган.
Кристофер Марлонинг «Буюк Темур» фожиасини ўзбек тилига истеъдодли шоир Маъруф Жалил таржима қилган. Биз яқин кунларда бу таржимани ҳам сизга тақдим этамиз.

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Tamburlaine the Great is the name of a play in two parts by Christopher Marlowe. It is loosely based on the life of the Central Asian emperor, Timur ‘the lame’. Written in 1587 or 1588, the play is a milestone in Elizabethan public drama; it marks a turning away from the clumsy language and loose plotting of the earlier Tudor dramatists, and a new interest in fresh and vivid language, memorable action, and intellectual complexity. Along with Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy, it may be considered the first popular success of London’s public stage.
>Marlowe, generally considered the greatest of the University Wits, influenced playwrights well into the Jacobean period, and echoes of Tamburlaine’s bombast and ambition can be found in English plays all the way to the Puritan closing of the theaters in 1642. While Tamburlaine is considered inferior to the great tragedies of the late-Elizabethan and early-Jacobean period, its significance in creating a stock of themes and, especially, in demonstrating the potential of blank verse in drama, are still acknowledged.

The play opens in Persepolis. The Persian emperor, Mycetes, dispatches troops to dispose of Tamburlaine, a Scythian shepherd and at that point a nomadic bandit. In the same scene, Mycetes’ brother Cosroe plots to overthrow Mycetes and assume the throne.

The scene shifts to Scythia, where Tamburlaine is shown wooing, capturing, and winning Zenocrate, the daughter of the Egyptian king. Confronted by Mycetes’ soldiers, he persuades first the soldiers and then Cosroe to join him in a fight against Mycetes. Although he promises Cosroe the Persian throne, Tamburlaine reneges on this promise and, after defeating Mycetes, takes personal control of the Persian Empire.

Suddenly a powerful figure, Tamburlaine decides to pursue further conquests. A campaign against Turkey yields him the Turkish king Bajazeth and his wife Zabina as captives; he keeps them in a cage and at one point uses Bajazeth as a footstool.

After conquering Africa and naming himself emperor of that continent, Tamburlaine sets his eyes on Damascus; this target places the Egyptian Sultan, his father-in-law, directly in his path. Zenocrate pleads with her husband to spare her father. He complies, instead making the Sultan a tributary king. The play ends with the wedding of Zenocrate and Tamburlaine, and the crowning of the former as Empress of Persia. (Summary from Wikipedia.org)

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Кристофер Марло (Christopher Marlowe, 1564-1593)

Одним из самых талантливых представителей «университетских умов» был драматург Кристофер Марло. Марло родился в семье мастера цеха сапожников и дубильщиков. Ему удалось окончить грамматическую школу, а затем Кембриджский университет, что было непросто для человека демократического происхождения. После получения степени магистра Марло отказывается принять духовный сан и становится драматургом. Он создал ряд выдающихся реалистических трагедий.

Трагедия «Тамерлан Великий» (Tamburlaine the Great, 1587-1588) состоит из двух частей, в которых представлена история жизни великого полководца Тимура. Историческое лицо истолковывается драматургом в духе ренессансных представлений о свободе и необходимости. В трагедии много вымышленных фактов, которые подчинены основному авторскому замыслу -показать характер сильной личности, раскрыть ее человеческую доблесть и индивидуалистическое своеволие. Скифский пастух, достигший небывалого могущества благодаря своему уму, силе воли и смелости, ставший вследствие своей активности персидским царем, предстает в трагедии как титаническая фигура. Но характер Тамерлана сложен и противоречив. Этот бесстрашный и мужественный человек непобедим в бою; возвышенна и сильна его верная любовь к Зенократе; ему свойственно преклонение перед красотой; как преданный друг относится он к своим соратникам; неутомим в преследовании и наказании земных властителей; для него не существует авторитетов, он смело бросает вызов богам («в битве страшной истребим богов»). Это человек, обладающий большими знаниями; так, он искусно излагает сыновьям правила фортификации и обучает их тайнам государственного правления.

 Трагедия «Тамерлан Великий» создавалась в то время, когда шла война с Испанией. Этим объясняется интерес драматурга к проблемам войны, героики и патриотизма. В творчестве Кристофера Марло трагедия наполнилась высоким общественным содержанием и стала жанром большой философской значимости. В трагедиях Марло ставятся большие общественные проблемы; драматург рисует яркие титанические характеры; его героям свойственна красочная патетическая речь.

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Christopher Marlowe was born in Canterbury around February 26, 1564 (this was the day on which he was baptized). He went to King’s School and was awarded a scholarship that enabled him to study at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, from late 1580 until 1587.

Marlowe earned his bachelor of arts degree in 1584, but in 1587 the university hesitated in granting him his master’s degree. Its doubts (perhaps arising from his frequent absences, or speculation that he had converted to Roman Catholicism and would soon attend college elsewhere) were set to rest, or at least dismissed, when the Privy Council sent a letter declaring that he was now working «on matters touching the benefit of his country,» and he was awarded his master’s degree on schedule.
Marlowe as a Secret Agent?

The nature of Marlowe’s service to England was not specified by the council, but the letter sent to Cambridge has provoked abundant speculation, notably the theory that Marlowe had become a secret agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham’s intelligence service. No direct evidence supports this theory, but the council’s letter clearly suggests that Marlowe was serving the government in some secret capacity.

Surviving Cambridge records from the period show that Marlowe had several lengthy absences from the university, much longer than allowed by the school’s regulations. And extant dining room accounts indicate that he spent lavishly on food and drink while there, greater amounts than he could have afforded on his known scholarship income. Both of these could point to a secondary source of income, such as secret government work.

But with scant hard evidence and rampant speculation, the mystery surrounding Marlowe’s service to the queen is likely to remain active. Spy or not, after attaining his master’s degree, Marlowe moved to London and took up writing full-time.

Early Writing Career

After 1587, Christopher Marlowe was in London, writing for the theater and probably also engaging himself occasionally in government service. What is thought to be his first play, Dido, Queen of Carthage, was not published until 1594, but it is generally thought to have been written while he was still a student at Cambridge. According to records, the play was performed by the Children of the Chapel, a company of boy actors, between 1587 and 1593.

Marlowe’s second play was the two-part Tamburlaine the Great (c. 1587; published 1590). This was Marlowe’s first play to be performed on the regular stage in London and is among the first English plays in blank verse. It is considered the beginning of the mature phase of the Elizabethan theater and was the last of Marlowe’s plays to be published before his untimely death.

There is disagreement among Marlowe scholars regarding the order in which the plays subsequent to Tamburlaine were written.

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